Many semiconductor production and research facilities around the world use the kSA MOS Ultra-Scan and Thermal-Scan systems to measure wafer bow. This is a method to determine the flatness of thin slices of semiconductor material called wafers. Solar cells are often also made from wafers. The Ultra-Scan uses a laser array to map curvature, bow, and stress of these semiconductor wafers. This tool can also be used to measure curvature, bow, and stress of other polished surfaces, such as lenses and optical mirrors. The Thermal-Scan also uses an integrated heating chamber with process gas introduction for thermal stress analysis.